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    Measurements of partial and total column of several atmospheric trace gases (e.g.O3, HCl, N2O, CH4, HNO3, ClONO2, HCN, HF, OCS, CO, C2H6, CFC-11, CFC-12, COF2 + others). Measurements are made with Bruker Fourier transform spectrometers, using direct sunlight (or moonlight) at infrared wavelengths (700-10000cm-1). The Bruker FTS instruments have two liquid nitrogen cooled detectors (inSb & HgCdTe) and six optical filters. For 2014-2016 seasons, operated in parallel with Bruker 120M for intercomparison studies. Bruker 120M will then be retried. Bruker 125HR will replace it. Data are routinely analysed for HNO3, HCl, CH4, N2O, CO, ClONO2, HF, C2H6, HCN, and 10+ other species measurable. Information on other trace gases is contained in the spectra, not yet analysed/retrieved. “Raw” data are times and recorded interferograms which are Fourier transformed into spectra. “Derived” data are column amounts, and in some cases limited vertical profile information, of atmospheric trace gases. Technique for vertical profile information uses "optimal estimation" to extract information from pressure broadening of absorption lines: SFIT2/SFIT4. The original solar tracker was replaced with a newer tracker in December 2017, active tracking of sun now possible. A Bruker EM27-Sun operated for a summer season at AHTS, to access capability. Measurements of total column CO2, CH4 and CO. Data archived as part of the COCCON network. Instrument timeline: - Bomen DA2 FTS 1990-1994 (HNO3 and HCl only) - Bruker 120M: 1996-2016 - Bruker 125HR: 2015 – present - EM27-Sun: Campaign based low resolution instrument (CO2, CH4 and CO only). February 2016 and then November 2020 – February 2021 GET DATA: https://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/ndacc/data.html?station=arrival.heights GET DATA (EM27-Sun): https://www.imk-asf.kit.edu/english/COCCON.php

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    Gas samples (CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, 13CO2, 14CH4, 13CO, C18O, 14CO) are collected from an inlet atop of a mast 5 metres above ground level in North sector wind conditions. Flasks and cylinders are analysed back at NIWA Greta point Gaslab. The sampling was established in November 1989. Samples are only taken when wind is from the Northerly sector and above 5kts. High pressure cylinders: ~1600psi in 30 litre cylinders and low-pressure flask samples taken (~5 litres, 25 psi in 2 litre flask). Air samples in the Cylinders & Flasks shipped to New Zealand regularly. Analysis performed at NIWA's GASLAB located at Greta Point Wellington. Analysis by Gas chromatography (GC) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). A semi-automated flask sampling system was installed in February 2017, allowing extra flask samples with minimal operator intervention. GET DATA: Contact Gordon Brailsford (g.brailsford@niwa.co.nz)

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    The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069A. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations, which measures powerful and distant communications transmitters operating in the VLF range. As such, the dataset is "narrowband", taking amplitude and phase measurements at the transmission frequencies. For this sensor, there is 0.2s time resolution. The Konsortia sensors detect changes in ionisation levels from ~30-85 km altitude, with the goal of increasing the understanding of energy coupling between the Earth's atmosphere, Sun, and Space. We use the upper atmosphere as a gigantic energetic particle detector to observe and understand changing energy flows; this Science area impacts our knowledge of global change, communications, and navigation. One of the few experimental techniques that can probe these altitudes uses very low-frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation, trapped between the lower ionosphere (~85 km) and the Earth, and thus said to be propagating "subionospherically". The sensor is currently logging transmitters in the northern & southern hemispheres, over a very wide longitude range. Both experiments send the processed data across the internet. AARDDVARK observations are sent to the University of Otago once a day at an agreed time. The new AH receiver was the 10th station in the AARDDVARK network, jointly lead by the University of Otago and the British Antarctic Survey. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with UltraMSK software running on a PC locked to GPS timing. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

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    Measurements of boundary layer concentration of ozone are made with insitu instruments that samples air continuously at Arrival Heights, Antarctica and is part of the NOAA Global Monitoring Surface Ozone Network. Original measurements at Arrival Heights were made with a Dasibi Environmental Corp in situ analyser. This was replaced with a TEI-49c in situ analyser. The TEI-49c is owned by NOAA and operated by NIWA at Arrival Heights until October 2023. In October 2023 operation of the TEI was transferred to the USAP Arrival Heights laboratory along with operational responsibility (between NOAA and USAP). This data set contains continuous UV photometric data of surface level ozone collected at 6m above ground level. Data records consist of UTC time, date, and processed ozone mixing ratio (parts per billion). Data is collected from global locations and is provided in 1 minute and 1 hour averages. Data are archived at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), but are produced and available from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). Instrument timeline: - Dasibi 1997-2003 - TEI49c 2003 – October 2023 - TEI49i November 2023 -present at USAP Arrival Heights laboratory GET DATA: https://gml.noaa.gov/aftp/data/ozwv/SurfaceOzone/ARH/

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    Altitude profile measurements of water vapour, ozone and aerosols using balloon packages flown through the troposphere into the stratosphere as part of the Ross Island GRUAN site activities. Maximum altitude recorded was 29 km. This project is a collaboration between the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and NOAA. Timeline: - November 2022: 2 flights - February 2023: 1 flight - October 2023: 3 flights Data are held internally at NIWA and NOAA, and will be stored in the GRUAN database (https://www.gruan.org/data) GET_DATA: https://www.gruan.org/data

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    The WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Scott Base in November 2015 by Dr. James Brundell and Ms. Emma Douma as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K060-1516-A. The sensor measures the electric field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz) and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The antenna is located behind the Hatherton lab. It was installed due to increasing manmade electromagnetic noise levels in the "quiet zone" at Arrival Heights. The observations from this antenna are now the primary WWLLN feed from Ross Island, the Arrival Height's magnetic field antenna is now a backup. WWLLN, uses the VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the Scott Base measurements. WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

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    Ultraviolet radiation measurements over the spectral region 290-450 nm with a high precision spectro-radiometer. The spectro-radiometer was installed at Arrival Heights as a two month (November 2006 – January 2007) blind inter-comparison with the established measurement programme run by Biospherical Instruments for the USAP. The data was compared with the USAP data taken simultaneously. These data are held internally by NIWA. GET DATA: contact dan.smale@niwa.co.nz

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    The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069a. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations. The secondary experiment, WWLLN, uses exactly the same VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the "Scott Base" measurements made at Arrival Heights or near the Hatherton Lab (depending on noise levels). WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with standard WWLLN software, with GPS timing. GET DATA: https://wwlln.net/

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    Our studies investigate the Antarctic middle atmosphere’s response to natural and man-made factors which change climate. The dynamical processes of this region are significant in controlling the circulation at lower altitudes, including the stratospheric ozone layer. The feedbacks in the atmosphere, couple this change to climate change at the surface. The seasonal behaviour of this wave-driven circulation, particularly its dependence on major disturbances in the stratosphere which result in the transport of energy and momentum by waves to higher altitudes are examined. The programme is based on continuous monitoring of winds in the middle atmosphere at altitudes of 60-100km using a ground-based medium frequency radar located at Scott Base. The Scott Base radar has been recording wind measurements since 1982 and is one of the longest duration climate records of this type of data in the world. The measurements made by the Scott Base MF radar provide valuable climate information about how the flow in the middle atmosphere (70-100 km) has changed. This record along with observations from satellite instruments allows the coupling between the middle atmosphere and the surface over Antarctica to be examined, this coupling is often associated with wave-like motions in the atmosphere that the MF radar is particularly good at observing. The circulation is dominated by pole-to-pole flow, from the summer pole to the winter pole. This circulation is largely driven by atmospheric waves with time scales from 15 minutes to 15 days. The large scale of the phenomenon benefits considerably from co-operative observations by our own radar near Christchurch, and by our US colleagues at the South Pole, Admiral Heights (from January 2000) and Tekapo. We also use satellite data for the region between Antarctica and New Zealand. This type of study is important because improvements in the predictive ability of the current generation of climate models may be particularly sensitive to the coupling processes that we examine.

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    Spectroscopic measurements of stratospheric gases Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Chlorine Dioxide (OCIO), Bromine Oxide (BrO) and Ozone (O3) using scattered sunlight. Airyx and Envimeas: A dual MAX-DOAS UV/visible wavelength diode array spectrometer is deployed to measure of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine dioxide (OClO) and bromine oxide (BrO). The instrument is a similar instrument to that of EnviMeas, and produces overlapping datasets with ADAS-2. Fixed azimuth direction, same as the Antarctic Diode Array spectrometer. System 2 (ADAS-2). The data are currently being held internally by NIWA. “Raw” data are times and recorded spectra of scattered light for several viewing directions. “Derived” data are column amount of NO2, OClO, BrO and O3, which can be split into tropospheric and stratospheric parts. This technique is sometimes referred to as MAX-DOAS Multiple-Axis Dual Optical Absorption Spectrometry. This work is carried out in collaboration the University of Heidelberg. ADAS2, Envimeas and Airyx measurements: UV/visible Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) diode array spectrometers making measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine dioxide (OClO) and bromine oxide (BrO). JY: A scanning grating UV/Vis monochromator taking measurements of total slant column of NO2 and Ozone using scattered zenith sunlight. ADAS: A CCD grating UV/Vis grating Acton spectrometer making measurements of total slant column NO2, BrO, OClO and ozone made using scattered light zenith sunlight. Pandora: Direct sun UV/Vis measurements of ozone and NO2. Campaign to test feasibility of long term deployment at Arrival Heights. Instrument timeline JY: 1982 -2023 ADAS: 1993 - 2017 ADAS2: 1998 - present Pandora: 2015 Aug – Oct. Airyx & Envimeas : 2018 – present O3, OCIO and BrO data are in the process of being archived - please contact Richard Querel for data access. NO2 data is available via the "GET DATA" link. GET DATA: https://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/ndacc/data.html?station=arrival.heights