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    As part of the Scott Base Redevelopment Marine Monitoring Programme, the impact of Scott Base's activities on the local marine environment was assessed. Sampling took place at three sites around Hut Point Peninsula on the southern half of Ross Island during October – November 2019 to assess anthropogenic contamination. Two acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP; Nortek Signature 500) were deployed, and set with a 2-minute sampling period in 1m vertical depth bins from the seabed to the underside of the ice. Instrument heads were kept ~0.5 m beneath the under-surface. ADCP data were downloaded, extracted from their raw formats, and averaged into 10-minute intervals. A magnetic declination of 141.09° E was applied to the measured current direction to correct the readings to reflect true north and a pressure offset was applied to standardise depths relative to ambient air pressure at the seawater surface. Information on habitats and benthic epifauna assemblage composition were collected using high resolution video across 2 25m transects at ~22m depth. Multiple overlapping passes were made across the seabed transects at ~0.5 m depth contours between ~20 – 26 m in order to create a 2D orthomosaic image of each site. Analysis of the diver-collected video was done using individual frames. The video along each transect was divided into 10 equal time segments and still frames were taken at random from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth segments. Eight video frames were analysed per transect (i.e., n=8 per transect and n=16 per site) by one individual to minimise observer bias. Sediment samples were collected by divers to determine contaminant concentrations and sediment characteristics (sediment particle size composition, organic matter content, organic carbon content and algal pigment content) at each site. Sponge species (Sphaerotylus antarcticus and Laternula elliptica) were collected for tissue contaminant analysis. Full description of methods is available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-023-03181-1 GET DATA: drew.lohrer@niwa.co.nz

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    The Antarctica New Zealand Adelie Penguin Census Survey takes aerial images with a helicopter of known penguin colonies on Ross Island and across the Victoria Land coastline. These files provide 36 adelie colony locations. The KML and GeoPackage files both include the same 36 colony locations. Note: colony coordinates are missing for Chinstrap Island, Franklin Island East, and Thala Island. Geopackage and KML files were created in QGIS, and the coordinates were later used to create the GeoPDF files which were used for helicopter navigation to the Adelie penguin colonies.

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    The Antarctica New Zealand Adelie Penguin Census Survey opportunistically took aerial images with a helicopter of known Emperor colonies on Ross Island and across the Victoria Land coastline. These files provide the locations of the colonies surveyed in the 2023/24 season. Geopackage and KML files were created in QGIS, and the coordinates were later used to create the GeoPDF files which were used for helicopter navigation to the colonies.

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    Raw images (over approximately 20.000 unique images) collected during the Adelie Penguin Census across 30+ colonies since 1981 (see associated metadata resource for list full list of colonies). Photographs were taken using a black and white film camera from 1981 to 2004 (inclusive) and 2008. Images are available in .tif fomrat. Images are digital from 2005 onwards (except 2008). Raw images are available in cr2/cr3 formats, and processed images are available across tif and jpg formats. High resolution scanning was initiated in 2011 to scan all the negatives in the collection. There are approximately 10,000 negatives in the collection. Images are taken from helicopter at between 2000-2500 feet. All images collected during the 2324 season are georeferenced with latitude and longitude positions in decimal degrees (WGS 84). Camera Settings: ISO = 400 Shutter speed = greater than 1/1000 Focus = manual, pre-focus to 800m Lens = 135mm with UV filter Aperture/ Exposure = F8 (or up to F11) Image Size = Full size White Balance Setting = Daylight Captures per minute = ~80 GET DATA: m.meredyth-young@antarcticanz.govt.nz

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    Data provided here have been collected as part of the project "Measurements and Improved Parameterization of the Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flow through First-Year Sea Ice", OPP-0126007* and include measurements of temperature and various ice properties at selected sites in first-year and multiyear sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica in the years 2002-2004. Data from earlier installations of thermistor chains for measurements of ice temperature carried out by the New Zealand team have also been included. Data files are in Microsoft Excel format, with individual worksheets for specific cores or temperature data sets. Detailed information and comments on data sampling location etc. are provided in the files. Further information on data collection, results etc. can be found in the following publications: Backstrom, L. G. E., and H. Eicken 2007, submitted, Capacitance probe measurements of brine volume and bulk salinity in first-year sea ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. Pringle, D. J., H. Eicken, H. J. Trodahl, and L. G. E. Backstrom 2007, submitted, Thermal conductivity of landfast Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res. Trodahl, H. J., S. O. F. Wilkinson, M. J. McGuinness, and T. G. Haskell 2001, Thermal conductivity of sea ice; dependence on temperature and depth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1279-1282. Data are in Microsoft Excel format. Abbreviations: AH = Arrival Heights; CH = Camp Haskell (near Delbridge Islands); VUW = Victoria University Wellington; UAF = University Alaska Fairbanks. RELATED PUBLICATION: https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2022.108 GET DATA: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1ooUH9dPvWT66afFC51Cb0JOHg66rn0sy

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    The Antarctica New Zealand Adelie Penguin Census Survey takes aerial images with a helicopter of known penguin colonies on Ross Island and across the Victoria Land coastline. These maps were generated in QGIS with Quantarctica base layers. Maps have been generated on an Antarctic Polar Stereographic with a WGS 84 reference system, and at a scale of 1:50000. A GeoPDF is a georeferenced pdf file providing users with location data. These maps were used in the 23/24 season to provide location details of the helicopter during flight and the relative location to the Adelie and emperor penguin colony locations being surveyed.

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    In Antarctica, ice shelves such as the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) fringe 75% of the coastline and cover over 1.5 million km2, creating distinct and largely unexplored marine environments. It is fundamental to characterize the communities under these shelves to understand their biogeochemical role and predict how they might respond to future ice-shelf collapse 1,2. While historical studies suggested the RIS harbors active microorganisms 3–5, nothing is known about the composition of these communities. In this study, we profiled the composition, function, and activities of microbial communities in three seawater samples (400, 550, 700 m depth) underlying the shelf interior. We combined rate measurements with multi-omics (i.e. single-cell genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics). Overall, below-shelf waters harbour microbial communities of comparable abundance and diversity to deep pelagic waters. Based on the meta-omic data, the community is inferred to be sustained by dark carbon fixation using ammonia, nitrite, and sulfur compounds as electron donors. In turn, these chemolithoautotrophs are predicted to support the aerobic heterotrophic majority and various trophic interactions. Consistently, this study and previous activity measurements suggest that dark carbon fixation is sufficient to sustain prokaryotic heterotrophic production, making the waters below the RIS presumably the largest chemolithotrophic system in the global ocean. Further details are provided at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27769-5 GET DATA: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB35712 GET DATA: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/?term=PRJNA593264

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    This metadata record represents the code and data used for the first application of WRF-Hydro/Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Commonwealth Glacier), which as a fully distributed hydrological model has the capability to resolve the streams from the glaciers to the bare land that surround them. We applied a glacier and hydrology model in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) to model the start and duration of melt over a summer in this extreme polar desert. To do so, we found it necessary to prevent the drainage of melt into ice and optimize the albedo scheme. We show that simulating albedo (for the first time in the MDV) is critical to modelling the feedbacks of albedo, snowfall and melt in the region. This is a first step towards more complex spatial modelling of melt and streamflow. The Zenodo data includes output point data (*.csv) and namelist used in: Pletzer, T., Conway, J.P., Cullen, N.J., Eidhammer, T., & Katurji, M. (2024). The application and modification of WRF-Hydro/Glacier to a cold-based Antarctic glacier. *Hydrology and Earth System Sciences*, 28(3), 459-478. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-28-459-2024 The modifications to the WRF-Hydro/Glacier model used in the paper can be found on GitHub: https://github.com/tpletzer/wrf_hydro_nwm_coldglacier GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10565032

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    The oceanographic mooring (-77.891050, 166.258333) provide year-round characterisation of the water column. This collection includes: - 11 instruments - Temperature logger (SBE56) x8, 1 year deployment, 1-minute intervals - x3 SBE37 units continuosly recorded temperature, conductivity, and pressure (CTD) at 2-minute intervals Data were captured in full resolution, processed in Matlab, and converted to .dat and Matlab formats. Each temperature logger record was assigned a timeseries of depths corresponding to a straight-line linear fit between the measured upper and lower reference points – either pressure records from the SBE37 units, or from the measured seabed for the lower unit. GET DATA: natalie.robinson@niwa.co.nz

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    Data includes estimates of abundance of seaweed taxa on the seafloor across the Northern Victoria Land coast, Ross Sea, Antarctica. This includes: - Metadata of video transects - Seaweed density across transects - Modelled outputs of light attenuation across sites. Descriptions: - "Antarctic_Seaweed_Metadata_TAN2101_TAN2302_Dryad.xlsx" - Metadata of video transects, date and time, locations, gear, depth, distance covered. - "Antarctic_Seaweeds_TAN2101_TAN2302.csv" - Density of seaweed functional groups across video transects - "Light_transects_TAN2021_TAN2302.csv" - Outputs of light modelling for seafloor regions of the Ross Sea - "Antarctic_Seaweed_RScript_Tait_etal_2024.txt" - R sripts used to plot, analyse and model the above datasets Further details are provided at: Tait, L.W., Chin, C., Nelson, W. et al. Deep-living and diverse Antarctic seaweeds as potentially important contributors to global carbon fixation. Commun Earth Environ 5, 205 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-024-01362-2 GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.w6m905qwz