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    In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the south of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.488417, lon:163.174350) on 12 February 2017 as a part of the ANA07C research cruise, and it was recovered on 7 March 2018. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the south of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/9245184f-b187-4c1e-ad6f-32ed1f9493c8

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    In collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the North of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.360767, lon:164.746467) on March 2020, and it was recovered on March 2022 (ANA12D research cruise). To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/3e3f6f5f-4989-4263-b351-d8df3b1e0471

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    In collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed close to the bottom depth near the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.275700, lon:164.067300) on 9 March 2018 as a part of the ANA08C research cruise, and it was recovered on 3 January 2019 To monitor physical properties(Temperature, Salinity, Current) of deep water near the Drygalski Ice Tongue. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of deep water near the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/9826749c-376a-4751-8812-702cec76c4c0

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    In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed close to the bottom depth near the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.275700, lon:164.067300) on 9 March 2018 as a part of the ANA08C research cruise, and it was recovered on 3 January 2019. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of deep water near the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/9826749c-376a-4751-8812-702cec76c4c0

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    In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the North of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.360767, lon:164.746467) on 9 February 2017 as a part of the ANA07C research cruise, and it was recovered on 5 March 2018. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/c266365d-4846-4242-952b-75102a53110b

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    In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute LDEO and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed close to the bottom depth in the Drygalski Basin (lat:-75.010487, lon:165.555680) on 6 March 2018 as a part of the ANA08C research cruise, and it was recovered on 5 January 2019. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of deep water in the Drygalski Basin. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/992862c1-84d0-46aa-97dd-e2dcfb12357e

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    In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the North of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (-75.360083, lon:164.748633) on 3 March 2018 as a part of the ANA08C research cruise, and it was recovered on 4 January 2019. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/90416713-7e1f-4c4d-a0b6-46c8deeea43e

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    A semi-autonomous sea ice monitoring station (SIMS) was deployed to record ice temperature profiles and snow depths throughout the winter to late spring portion of the sea ice cover's growth season. These data were used to quantify the factors that govern the rate at which the sea ice grows. These factors include the local air temperature, vertical temperature gradient in the sea ice, the thickness of the overlying snow cover and the properties of the water column at the ice / water interface. The ice temperature profiles were recorded by a custom-built temperature probe designed by the University of Otago. The Otago thermistor probe consisted of twenty thermistors contained within a ~ 2.5 m long, 10 mm diameter stainless steel tube. The spacing of the thermistors in the probe was variable. This dataset provides information on the growth of the landfast sea ice and how much of this growth was due to heat loss to the atmosphere vs heat loss to the ocean. Locations: lat:-75.275700, lon:164.067300 (2022/23) Sea ice salinity and fabric cores were collected to understand sea ice growth rates, and indicate the different types of landfast sea ice (e.g. columnar versus incorporated platelet) and to determine their relative vertical positions with the sea ice cover. Sea ice, sub ice platelet layer, snow and freeboard measurements were used to validate ice thicknesses determined by analysing the sea ice temperature profiles collected by the SIMS. Snow depths were measured with a Campbell Scientific ultrasonic sensor (SR50). VIEW DATA: https://seaice.otago.ac.nz/ice-temp-graph/contour/

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    In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the North of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.360083, lon:164.748633) on 12 December 2014 as a part of the ANA05A research cruise, and it was recovered on 10 December 2015. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/1a10def2-13e7-4829-b46d-07bebb748ce2

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    Here we provide data from the Ross Ice Shelf ocean cavity. The HWD2 Camp was established in October of 2017 at (-80 39.497, 174 27.678) where the ice is moving seaward at around ~600 m a-1 and is sourced from the Transantarctic Mountains. Profiling Instruments - Profiling was primarily conducted with an RBR Concerto CTD (conductivity-temperature depth) profiling instrument, and this was cross-calibrated against irregular profiles with an RBR Duet (pressure and temperature only), a SBE37 MicroCat CTD as well as moored SBE37 MicroCat CTDs. The RBR unit is small and has suitable sensor capability (temperature and conductivity accuracies of ±0.002°C and ±0.003 mS cm-1). Its conductivity cell design is not prone to fouling by ice crystals, making it ideal for work in the sometimes crystal-laden borehole conditions. We were inconsistent in how we mounted the CTD on its protective frame and this appeared to make small difference in the conductivity signal (resulting in an ~0.03 psu variation). This was post-corrected based on the essentially invariant mooring data from the lower water column as well as SBE37 cross-calibration profile data. Because of the potential for sediment contamination of the sensors, the profiles were mostly conservative in their proximity to the sea floor. On several occasions, profiles were conducted all the way to the sea floor. The temperature and salinity are presented in EOS-80 in order to compare with available data. Eighty-three profiles are provided here (ctd_HWD2_*.dat). In addition, limited microstructure profiling was conducted to provide insight into some of the mixing details. The profiles were conducted by lowering the instrument to the ice base then commencing a sequence of three up-down “yo-yos” before returning to the surface and downloading. A data segment is included here (VMP_HWD2.dat). There were some challenges registering the vertical coordinate for the profiles. The melting of the borehole generates a trapped pool of relatively fresh water. The interface between this and the ocean should be near the base of the hole or a little higher – with seawater intrusion. However, there were some instances where the interface was at a higher pressure (i.e. apparently in the open water column). The best explanation for this is that the water in the borehole is not at static equilibrium for some period after initial melting. We use 34.3 psu as a cut-off, in addition to a pressure criterion to identify the top of the useful oceanic profile. It is also not inconceivable that water was being ejected from the hole, but it is unlikely that this would have impacted in the consistent observed pattern. Instrumented Mooring - The mooring instruments at HWD2-A comprised 5 Nortek Aquadopp single point current meters in titanium housings reporting to the surface (30-minute interval, Table SI-Three) via an inductive modem to a Sound-9 data logger and Iridium transmitter. The current meter measurements were corrected to account for the 138° magnetic declination offset (i.e. the south magnetic pole is to the north-west of the field site). Five files are provided here (HWD2_Init_rcm*.dat4). RELATED PUBLICATION: Stevens Craig, Hulbe Christina, Brewer Mike, Stewart Craig, Robinson Natalie, Ohneiser Christian, Jendersie Stefan (2020). Ocean mixing and heat transport processes observed under the Ross Ice Shelf control its basal melting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117 (29), 16799-16804. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910760117