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    A sea level recorder and barometer was installed at Scott Base in January 2001 initially to support oceanographic and hazards research (including tsunami) and to support hydrographic surveying. The sea-level recorder is a nitrogen bubbler system with a paroscientific pressure transducer located on a bottom-mounted spigot of the osmosis boom (to enable lifting for maintenance), that ensures the orifice always returns to the same point. Sea level and atmospheric pressure and temperature are recorded at 5 minute intervals and stored every 24 hours. Each year the rise and fall of the sea ice is observed over a 2-3 day period during a spring tide using GPS. These measurements are related to a tide gauge benchmark and the sea surface to enable the reliability of the tide gauge to be checked. GET DATA: https://sealevel-data.linz.govt.nz/index.html?tidegauge=SCOT

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    The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069A. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations, which measures powerful and distant communications transmitters operating in the VLF range. As such, the dataset is "narrowband", taking amplitude and phase measurements at the transmission frequencies. For this sensor, there is 0.2s time resolution. The Konsortia sensors detect changes in ionisation levels from ~30-85 km altitude, with the goal of increasing the understanding of energy coupling between the Earth's atmosphere, Sun, and Space. We use the upper atmosphere as a gigantic energetic particle detector to observe and understand changing energy flows; this Science area impacts our knowledge of global change, communications, and navigation. One of the few experimental techniques that can probe these altitudes uses very low-frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation, trapped between the lower ionosphere (~85 km) and the Earth, and thus said to be propagating "subionospherically". The sensor is currently logging transmitters in the northern & southern hemispheres, over a very wide longitude range. Both experiments send the processed data across the internet. AARDDVARK observations are sent to the University of Otago once a day at an agreed time. The new AH receiver was the 10th station in the AARDDVARK network, jointly lead by the University of Otago and the British Antarctic Survey. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with UltraMSK software running on a PC locked to GPS timing. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

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    Altitude profile measurements of water vapour, ozone and aerosols using balloon packages flown through the troposphere into the stratosphere as part of the Ross Island GRUAN site activities. Maximum altitude recorded was 29 km. This project is a collaboration between the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and NOAA. Timeline: - November 2022: 2 flights - February 2023: 1 flight - October 2023: 3 flights Data are held internally at NIWA and NOAA, and will be stored in the GRUAN database (https://www.gruan.org/data) GET_DATA: https://www.gruan.org/data

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    The WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Scott Base in November 2015 by Dr. James Brundell and Ms. Emma Douma as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K060-1516-A. The sensor measures the electric field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz) and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The antenna is located behind the Hatherton lab. It was installed due to increasing manmade electromagnetic noise levels in the "quiet zone" at Arrival Heights. The observations from this antenna are now the primary WWLLN feed from Ross Island, the Arrival Height's magnetic field antenna is now a backup. WWLLN, uses the VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the Scott Base measurements. WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

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    The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069a. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations. The secondary experiment, WWLLN, uses exactly the same VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the "Scott Base" measurements made at Arrival Heights or near the Hatherton Lab (depending on noise levels). WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with standard WWLLN software, with GPS timing. GET DATA: https://wwlln.net/

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    Our studies investigate the Antarctic middle atmosphere’s response to natural and man-made factors which change climate. The dynamical processes of this region are significant in controlling the circulation at lower altitudes, including the stratospheric ozone layer. The feedbacks in the atmosphere, couple this change to climate change at the surface. The seasonal behaviour of this wave-driven circulation, particularly its dependence on major disturbances in the stratosphere which result in the transport of energy and momentum by waves to higher altitudes are examined. The programme is based on continuous monitoring of winds in the middle atmosphere at altitudes of 60-100km using a ground-based medium frequency radar located at Scott Base. The Scott Base radar has been recording wind measurements since 1982 and is one of the longest duration climate records of this type of data in the world. The measurements made by the Scott Base MF radar provide valuable climate information about how the flow in the middle atmosphere (70-100 km) has changed. This record along with observations from satellite instruments allows the coupling between the middle atmosphere and the surface over Antarctica to be examined, this coupling is often associated with wave-like motions in the atmosphere that the MF radar is particularly good at observing. The circulation is dominated by pole-to-pole flow, from the summer pole to the winter pole. This circulation is largely driven by atmospheric waves with time scales from 15 minutes to 15 days. The large scale of the phenomenon benefits considerably from co-operative observations by our own radar near Christchurch, and by our US colleagues at the South Pole, Admiral Heights (from January 2000) and Tekapo. We also use satellite data for the region between Antarctica and New Zealand. This type of study is important because improvements in the predictive ability of the current generation of climate models may be particularly sensitive to the coupling processes that we examine.

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    Aerial reconnaissance and photography are used in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica to determine the breeding locations of Adélie penguins and to count the numbers of nests occupied during the early incubation period. From 1981 to present (two-year embargo), all islands and sea coasts between 158°E and 175°E have been searched, and 11 previously unreported breeding colonies discovered. The aim is to census Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations to provide basic data against which future population levels can be compared in order to monitor environmental change of the Antarctic Ocean ecosystem, both natural and man-induced. GET DATA: https://datastore.landcareresearch.co.nz/en_AU/dataset/adelie-penguin-census-data

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    Climate data have been collected at Scott Base continuously since 1957 and more recently from Arrival Heights and is one of the longest continuous climate records in Antarctica. Climate parameters measured include: wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and global, diffuse and direct solar radiation. Climate data are collected on a daily basis from both sites. At Scott Base, this takes two forms: a standard daily observation at 0900 NZDT, and continuous data collection at 10 minute and hourly intervals using a CR10X data logger. The initial record of the 0900 daily observations began on 1 March 1957 with air temperature, air pressure, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation being measured with standard instrumentation (wind measurements since 1972). This record constitutes the reference record. In January 1997 an electronic weather station (EWS) was added to collect and archive 10 minute and hourly data. The daily manual observations continued so as to provide a continuous reference and daily record. Historically, Arrival Heights only had a wind recorder (since January 1984). A data logger was installed in January 1999 and measured air temperature, relative humidity and global solar radiation using a secondary network sensor, as well as wind speed and direction. A barometric pressure sensor was installed in 2001. A standard 10m mast was installed and all sensors were moved to the new Arrival Heights laboratory in 2007. 10-minute and hourly data are recorded. Data are retrieved and archived from both automatic stations daily, as well as manual observations from Scott Base and available on New Zealand's national climate database. From February 2019, mercury theremometers and barometers were removed from Scott Base and Arrival Heights. Where applicable, these were replaced with electronic instruments. A weighing precipitation gauge was also installed in February 2019 for the measurement of solid precipitation at Scott Base. GET DATA: https://cliflo.niwa.co.nz/

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    A tide gauge was installed in November 1990 and has been in near continuous operation since. A 10 minute average of water depth was recorded each hour with hourly averages of wind speed and direction, air temperature and solar radiation. From 2000 the recording frequency was increased from every hour to every 10 minutes. From 2003 data is read every 10 seconds and an average value (from 60 readings) is calculated every 5 minutes and recorded. Barometric pressure was measured as well, starting in 2003, with six barometric pressure readings made between 2 and 3 minutes in the 5-minute interval and averaged and recorded with the tide value. Each year the rise and fall of the sea ice is observed over a 2 - 3 day period during a spring tide using GPS. These measurements are related to a tide gauge bench mark and the sea surface to enable the reliability of the tide gauge to be checked. The tide gauge data is archived by Land Information New Zealand. GET DATA: https://sealevel-data.linz.govt.nz/index.html?tidegauge=ROBT

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    Knowledge of recruitment dynamics, and in particular trends in recruitment and recruitment variability, are key inputs for integrated assessments of fish stocks. A quantitative longline survey monitoring the recruitment of Antarctic toothfish (Dissotichus mawsoni) in the southern Ross Sea was started in 2012. The survey was expanded in 2016 to monitor trends and biological characteristics in two areas of importance to predators, Terra Nova Bay and McMurdo Sound, and to collect data that would contribute to the research and monitoring plan for the Ross Sea region Marine Protected Area. In most years, the survey was completed as planned, while in three years several factors have constrained the survey from sampling all stations and in the latest two seasons pandemic travel restrictions have necessitated an alternative delivery approach. Between 2012 and 2022, 2 056 tagged Antarctic toothfish have been released on the survey and 21 toothfish have been recaptured. Fifteen pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on D. mawsoni in 2019 and fifteen skates were tagged in 2020 and 2021. Many tagged toothfish released from the RSSS move from the shelf to the slope. Trends in abundance indices and size and age composition consistently show the progression of strong year classes entering and leaving the survey area and have indicated that recruitment is likely more variable than previously thought. Data from the RSSS have been used to indicate year class strength in Antarctic toothfish stock assessments since 2015. The twelve surveys to date have resulted in a substantive increase in the knowledge and understanding of the distribution and relative abundance of a range of demersal fish species and invertebrate taxa caught on the longlines. Other data routinely collected on the surveys were plankton, temperature, salinity, air quality, cetacean and other marine mammal observations, and photo, video, and echosounder data. The RSSS has provided synergies with other research programmes also addressing CCAMLR objectives, particularly those focused on research and monitoring within the RSrMPA. GET DATA: https://www.ccamlr.org/en/publications/statistical-bulletin